The Arabic Empire-zghd

Travel-and-Leisure The wave of armies which poured forth from Arabia in the 7th century ranks as one of history’s most baffling phenomena. Before the time of the Prophet Mohammed the Arabs constituted a few dozen Semitic tribes living in a hot and dusty land.Existing on little more than camel’s milk and dates, they traded by means of camel caravan and carried out raids on their neighbors. With the arrival of Islam (‘Submission to God’s Will’), however, the Arabs started to achieve conquests which in time were to change the world. In the city of Mecca, Mo hammed was a merchant much given to meditation in a cool cave in the mountains. There, in AD 612, he heard a celestial voice, which .manded him to .municate the new faith. Over the next 20 years, up until his death in AD 632, Mohammed delivered the 114 suras (chapters) which make up the Koran, the beautiful text which has be.e the constitution and inspiration of the Moslem world. In the early years of Islam, believers were organized as a small, close-knit society which was led by Mohammed him self. As the .munity then expanded, armies were formed and military operations begun. Within a swift century of Mo hammers death, Arab forces had conquered the Middle East including Persia, North Africa, and parts of Spain and France. Invaded by the Arabs in AD 639, Egypt was among the first countries to fall. At the south ern tip of the delta, the Arabs made their military camp, El Fustat, the country’s capital. Within 300 years, Egypt had be.e one of the Arab Empire’s most important political, religious and military centers. Then, around AD 968, a powerful dynasty called the Fatimids swept in from the Maghreb to seize Egypt and replaced the old capital with Al Qahira, the City of Victory Cairo. At the vigorous height of Fatimid rule, which lasted two centuries, Cairo enjoyed one of its richest cultural periods. The renowned ElAzhar University and Mosque date from these ti mes, and still remain a spiritual beacon to all Islam, as well as a summit of Fatimid architecture. The armies of Saladin over ran the empire of the Fatimids in 1169. Saladin, famous for his campaigns against the Crusaders in Palestine and Syria, then established his own dynasty in Egypt the Ayyubids. His descendants were subsequently ousted by a new wave of usurpers, who were mostly Turkish soldiers who had been slaves (mameluke) of the Ayyubids, and in a series of short and violent reigns, Marneluke strongmen succeeded one an y other from 1251 to 1517. De spite their unstable rule, Marneluke power started to spread through both Syria and Pales tine. In Cairo, they built count less palaces and mosques of exquisite beauty. Mameluke power was de feasted but not destroyed when Egypt was conquered by the fast moving and efficient armies of the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Three years later, Suleiman the Magnificent came to the throne in Constantinople (Istanbul), ushering in the Ottoman Empire’s most brilliant and powerful era. After Suleiman’s death in 1566, however, his dominions fell into a decline that dragged on for some three and a half centuries. The Egyptian province lost the benefits of efficient government and internal order as provincial Mameluke lords clamored for many of their old prerogatives from the Ottoman pasha in Cairo. Instability returned with Mameluke rule, and Egypt lurched haplessly and helplessly from crisis to crisis in a decadent and backward culture. Egypt’s first contact with the modern world came in 1798 in the form of a French military expedition under the young Napoleon Bonaparte. His primary interest lay in blocking Britain’s route across the Red Sea to India, but the expedition also included a group of scientists and archaeologists. About the Author: 相关的主题文章:


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